1. Canadian Income Survey, persons in low income, Canada and provinces, 2012. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2060003&pattern=low+income&tabMode=dataTable&srchLan=-1&p1=1&p2=-1" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  2. Persons living in low income after tax, 2012. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil19e-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  3. Low income in Canada: A multi-line and multi-index Perspective, 2012. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/2012001/summary-sommaire-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  4. First Nations, Metis and Inuit Women, Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report. Based on 2005 data and low-income cut-offs before tax. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11442-eng.htm#a28" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  5. Ibid. In 2006, a total of 169,480 women and girls were living on a reserve (status and non-status included) and are not included in this statistic.
  6. Visible Minority Women, Women in Canada: A Gender-Based Statistical Report. Based on 2005 data and low income cut-offs before tax., p. 34. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11527-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  7. Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, 2006. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/olc-cel/olc.action?objId=89-628-X&objType=2&lang=en&limit=0" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  8. Immigrant Women, Women in Canada, A Gender-Based Statistical report, 2012. Based on 2005 data and low-income cut-offs before tax. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11528-eng.htm#a24" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  9. Low income and family status, Women in Canada, A Gender-Based Statistical report, based on 2008 data. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11388-eng.htm#a4" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  10. Persons in low income after tax. 2011. Based on after-tax data. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil19a-eng.htm?sdi=low%20income" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  11. Persons in low income after tax. 2011. Based on after-tax data. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil19a-eng.htm?sdi=low%20income" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  12. Persons in low income after tax. 2011. Based on after-tax data. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil19a-eng.htm?sdi=low%20income" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  13. David Macdonald, Daniel Wilson. Poverty or Prosperity: Indigenous Children in Canada, 2013. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. [animate-link href="https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/reports/poverty-or-prosperity" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  14. Stephen Gaetz, Tanya Gulliver and Tim Richter. The State of Homelessness in Canada: 2014. Toronto: The Homeless Hub Press. [animate-link href="http://www.homelesshub.ca/SOHC2014" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  15. When there’s no place like home: A snapshot of women’s homelessness in Canada. Page 2. YWCA Canada [animate-link href="http://ywcacanada.ca/data/publications/00000058.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  16. Who is homeless? The Homeless Hub. [animate-link href="http://www.homelesshub.ca/about-homelessness/homelessness-101/who-homeless" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  17. 2014 Report Card on Child and Family Poverty in Canada. Campaign 2000.[animate-link href="http://www.cwp-csp.ca/resources/resources/2014-report-card-child-and-family-poverty-canada" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  18. Society at a glance 2014 highlights: Canada OECD social indicators, OECD.
    [animate-link href="http://bit.ly/1Kevd6r" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  19. Poverty Rates and Poverty Gaps. OECD Factbook 2014: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. [animate-link href="http://www.oecd.org/canada/OECD-SocietyAtaGlance2014-Highlights-Canada.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  20. The cost of poverty: An Analysis of the Economic Cost of Poverty in Ontario, Ontario Association of Food Banks, page 6. [animate-link href="http://www.oafb.ca/assets/pdfs/CostofPoverty.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  21. The only province in which welfare rates are above the poverty line is Newfoundland and Labrador, specifically for lone-parent families. Welfare in Canada 2012: Caledon Institute of Social Policy, page 53. [animate-link href="http://www.oafb.ca/assets/pdfs/CostofPoverty.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  22. Ibid, Page 55.
  23. Precarious Employment in Canada: Does the Evidence Square with the Anecdotes? [animate-link href="http://www.td.com/document/PDF/economics/special/PrecariousEmployment.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  24. Building a Stronger Future: Evaluation of the Canadian Centre for Women’s Economic Development 2009-2014, March 2015. Page 18. Canadian Women’s Foundation.[animate-link href="https://www.canadianwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CWF-EconomicDevelopment-Report-web.pdf" target="_blank"]Highlights report available here[/animate-link]
  25. Rachel Singer. The Impact of Poverty on the Health of Children and Youth, Campaign 2000, 2003, Page 11-12. [animate-link href="http://www.campaign2000.ca/resources/letters/Poverty_healthbackgrounder.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  26. The statistics used in Question 1 are based upon Low-Income Cut Offs (LICO) from Statistics Canada. LICOs describe an income ‘line’ which changes according to the number of people in a family, the size of their community, and so on. Families living below LICO have to spend more of their income on necessities than the average family. While LICO was originally designed to measure relative poverty, however, some scholars argue that LICO should now be considered a measure of absolute poverty because its baseline calculation is no longer being updated. See: Are Statistics Canada’s Low-Income Cutoffs an absolute or relative poverty measure? by Andrew Mitchell and Richard Shillington, undated. [animate-link href="http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/licos.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  27. Inequality and income, OECD. [animate-link href="http://www.oecd.org/social/inequality.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  28. David Macdonald. Outrageous Fortune: Documenting Canada’s Wealth Gap, 2014, Page 5. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. [animate-link href="https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National%20Office/2014/04/Outrageous_Fortune.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  29. Portrait of families and living arrangements in Canada, 2012. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-312-x/98-312-x2011001-eng.cfm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  30. Income composition in Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.
    [animate-link href="http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-014-x/99-014-x2011001-eng.cfm#a6" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  31. Rachel Singer. The Impact of Poverty on the Health of Children and Youth, Campaign 2000, 2003, Page 11-12. [animate-link href="http://www.campaign2000.ca/resources/letters/Poverty_healthbackgrounder.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  32. Supporting Education: Building Canada – Child Poverty and Schools, 2009, Page 1. Canadian Teacher’s Federation. [animate-link href="http://www.ctf-fce.ca/Research-Library/FINAL_Hilldayleavebehind_eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  33. Monica Townson. Canadian women on their own are poorest of the poor, Sept. 8, 2009. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. [animate-link href="http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/canadian-women-their-own-are-poorest-poor" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  34. Jane Gurr et al. Breaking the Links Between Poverty and Violence Against Women, 2008, Page 1. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, Public Health Agency of Canada. [animate-link href="http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/aspc-phac/HP20-14-2008-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  35. Veerle Miranda. Cooking, Caring and Volunteering: Unpaid Work Around The World, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, March 2011, p. 12. [animate-link href="http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf?cote=DELSA/ELSA/WD/SEM%282011%291&doclanguage=en" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  36. Time spent on unpaid childcare in the household, 2010, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11546/tbl/tbl006-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  37. Time spent on household domestic work, 2010. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11546/tbl/tbl007-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  38. Employment rate of women with children by family status and age of youngest child, 1976 to 2009, Women in Canada: A Gender-Based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11387/tbl/tbl006-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  39. Carole Vincent. Why do women earn less than men? A synthesis of findings from Canadian Microdata. 2013. Canadian Research Data Centre Network. Page 14. [animate-link href="http://www.rdc-cdr.ca/sites/default/files/carole_vincent_synthesis_final_2.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  40. Ibid, Page 17.
  41. Part-time employment of women and men, 1976-2009. Women in Canada: A Gender-Based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11387/tbl/tbl007-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  42. Minimum Wage, 2009. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/topics-sujets/minimumwage-salaireminimum/minimumwage-salaireminimum-2008-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  43. See for example: Dominique Fleury and Myriam Fortin. When Working Is Not Enough To Escape Poverty: An Analysis Of Canada’s Working Poor, Policy Research Group, Human Resources and Social Development Canada, August 2006.
    [animate-link href="http://vibrantcanada.ca/files/when_work_not_enough.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
    See also: Stuart Murray and Hugh Mackenzie. Bringing Minimum Wages Above the Poverty Line, March 2007, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. [animate-link href="http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National_Office_Pubs/2007/minimum_wage_above_poverty_line.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  44. Xuelin Zhang. Earnings of women with and without children, 2009. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2009103/article/10823-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  45. Xuelin Zhang. Earnings of women with and without children, 2009. Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2009103/article/10823-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  46. Distribution of employment income of individuals by sex and work activity, Canada, provinces, and selected census metropolitan areas, 2014. [animate-link href="http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=2060053&pattern=&csid= " target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]