1. An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009, Department of Justice Canada.
    [animate-link href="http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/rr12_7/p0.html#sum" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  2. The Violence Against Women Survey, Statistics Canada, 1993. Although more up-to-date data would be preferable, no recent Statistics Canada survey has asked women about their life-time experience of violence. [animate-link href="http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3896&Item_Id=1712" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]. Since publication, this report has been archived by Statistics Canada but the Canadian Women’s Foundation has a hard copy.
  3. Angus Reid Omnibus Survey, Canadian Women’s Foundation, 2012. [animate-link href="https://www.canadianwomen.org/sixtysevenpercent" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  4. Homicide in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada, Table 6. In 2014, 67 women were killed by their intimate partners; this number divided by 365 days in the year comes out to 5.4. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14244/tbl/tbl06-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  5. Shelters for Abused Women in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada, [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14207-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]. Out of the 4,476 women and 3,493 children staying in shelters on the snapshot date of April 16, 2014, 78% (or 3,491 women and 2,742 children) were there primarily because of abuse.
  6. Shelters for abused Women in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada, calculation based on 201 children and 338 women (539 people total), 56% of whom were turned away from shelters already at capacity on the snapshot date of April 16, 2014. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14207-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]. In a Shelter Voices 2016 snapshot survey, 305 women and children were turned away from shelters due to lack of capacity: Shelter Voices, Canadian Network of Women’s Shelters & Transition Houses, 2016, p.1. [animate-link href="http://endvaw.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/ShelterVoices-2016-WEB.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  7. Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview, 2014, The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, p. 1. [animate-link href="http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/wam/media/460/original/0cbd8968a049aa0b44d343e76b4a9478.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  8. Confusion Reigns Over Number of Missing, murdered Indigenous Women, 2016, CBC News.[animate-link href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/mmiw-4000-hajdu-1.3450237" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  9. Homicide in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada, p.14. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14244-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  10. Family Violence in Canada: A statistical profile, 2013, Table 4.2. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14114/tbl/tbl42-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  11. Violence Against Women, 2011, Statistics Canada, p. 2. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/130225/dq130225a-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  12. Cyber violence against women and girls, UN Women. [animate-link href="http://www.unwomen.org/~/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2015/cyber_violence_gender%20report.pdf?d=20150924T154259&v=1" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  13. Online Harassment: Summary of findings, Pew Research Centre, 2014. [animate-link href="http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/10/22/online-harassment/" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  14. Family Violence in Canada; A Statistical Profile, 2013, Statistics Canada, p. 4. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14114-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  15. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends, Statistics Canada, 2006, p. 18. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-570-x/85-570-x2006001-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link] and Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends, Statistics Canada, 2013, p. 94. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  16. Infographic: Family Violence in Canada, 2014. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2016001-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  17. Calgary police link domestic violence spike to economic downturn, CTV news, May 18, 2016. [animate-link href="http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/calgary-police-link-domestic-violence-spike-to-economic-downturn-1.2908381" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  18. Domestic Violence Up as Economy Down, say N.L. transition houses, CBC News, April 6, 2016. [animate-link href="http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/domestic-violence-rising-nl-economic-downturn-1.3522879" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  19. The Hidden Disaster: Domestic Violence in the Aftermath of Natural Disaster, Deborah Parkinson and Claire Zara, 2013, [animate-link href="https://ajem.infoservices.com.au/items/AJEM-28-02-09" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  20. Experts say those affected by domestic violence and Fort McMurray fire will need long-term supports, Edmonton Examiner, June 17, 2016. [animate-link href="http://www.edmontonexaminer.com/2016/06/08/experts-say-those-affected-by-domestic-violence-and-fort-mcmurray-fire-will-need-long-term-supports" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  21. Homicide in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14244-eng.htm#a9" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  22. Domestic Violence at Work, Canadian Labour Congress, 2015. [animate-link href="http://canadianlabour.ca/issues-research/domestic-violence-work/report" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  23. United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, 1993. [animate-link href="http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/48/a48r104.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  24. Adapted from: Spousal Abuse: A fact sheet from the Department of Justice Canada, 2001. [animate-link href="http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/J2-289-2002E.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  25. Consolidation Criminal Code R.S.C., 1985, Government of Canada, 1985, ch. C-46. [animate-link href="http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/C-46.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  26. Inclusive security and peaceful societies: Examining the evidence, Marie O’Reilly, U.S. Department of Defense, Complex Operations. [animate-link href="http://cco.ndu.edu/Publications/PRISM/PRISM-volume-6-no1/Article/685037/inclusive-security-and-peaceful-societies-exploring-the-evidence/" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  27. The Global Gender Gap Index 2014: The case for gender equality, World Economic Forum. [animate-link href="http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2014/part-1/the-case-for-gender-equality/" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  28. Violence Against Women Information, Amnesty International. [animate-link href="http://www.amnestyusa.org/our-work/issues/women-s-rights/violence-against-women/violence-against-women-information" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  29. Alcohol and intimate partner violence: When can we say that heavy drinking is a contributing cause of violence?, Kenneth E. Leonard, Addiction, Vol. 100, Issue 4, published in 2005. [animate-link href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.00994.x/full" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  30. Women and alcohol: Social Perspectives, Patsy Staddon, Policy Press, 2015. [animate-link href="https://books.google.ca/books?id=jkMMCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT87&lpg=PT87&dq=double+standard+about+alcohol+for+women&source=bl&ots=KoOzsfduga&sig=ccRO08Zccm7QiahsGcaT154uAK0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjJgZX8uoXOAhXHpYMKHfAkAT04ChDoAQg9MAc#v=onepage&q=double%20standard%20about%20alcohol%20for%20women&f=false" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  31. Criminal Victimization in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14241-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  32. Infographic: Family Violence in Canada, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2016001-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  33. Homicide in Canada, 2014, Statistics Canada, p. 23. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14244-eng.htm#a9" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  34. Gender Differences in Police-Reported Violent Crime in Canada, 2008, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2010024-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link], page 5
  35. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends, Statistics Canada, 2013, p, 24. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  36. Gender Symmetry in Domestic Violence: A Substantive and Methodological Research Review, Michael S. Kimmel, Violence Against Women, 2002, From a summary written by Rus Ervin Funk, p.2. [animate-link href="http://www.ncdsv.org/images/male_DV_victims1.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  37. Gender Symmetry in Domestic Violence: A Substantive and Methodological Research Review, Michael S. Kimmel, Violence Against Women, 2002, From a summary written by Rus Ervin Funk, p.2. [animate-link href="http://www.ncdsv.org/images/male_DV_victims1.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  38. Family Violence in Canada, A Statistical Profile, 2013. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14114-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  39. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends, 2013, Statistics Canada, p.8.
    [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11766-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  40. Ibid.
  41. Family Violence in Canada, A Statistical Profile, 2013, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2014001/article/14114-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  42. Getting Out and Staying Out: Issues Surrounding a Woman’s Ability to Remain Out of an Abusive Relationship, Kimberly E. Horrill and Helene Berman, Centre for Research on Violence Against Women and Children, The University of Western Ontario, 2004.
    [animate-link href="http://www.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/Final-GettingOutandStayingOutIssuesSurroundingaWomansAbilitytoRemainOutofanAbusiveRelati_000.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  43. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006, p. 38.
    [animate-link href="http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/gender/vaw/surveys/Canada/2006_Publication_VAW.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  44. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006, p. 38.[animate-link href="http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/gender/vaw/surveys/Canada/2006_Publication_VAW.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  45. Measuring Violence Against Women: Statistical Trends 2006, p. 38.[animate-link href="http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/gender/vaw/surveys/Canada/2006_Publication_VAW.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  46. Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2011. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11805/11805-3-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  47. Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2014, p. 1. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/160121/dq160121b-eng.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  48. Police-reported dating violence in Canada 2008, p. 7. [animate-link href="http://statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2010002/article/11242-eng.htm#a1" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  49. Animal Abuse and Family Violence. Envision Counselling And Support Centre 2012. [animate-link href="http://envisioncounsellingcentre.com/innerpage/resources/animal-abuse-and-family-violence/" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  50. Persons in low income after tax, 2012, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/famil19e-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  51. Canadian women on their own are poorest of the poor, Monica Townson, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Sept. 8, 2009. [animate-link href="http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/canadian-women-their-own-are-poorest-poor" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  52. Women in Canada: A Gender Based Statistical Report, Economic Well-being, Statistics Canada, 2010, Table 13. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2010001/article/11388/tbl/tbl013-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  53. The Attenuating Effect of Empowerment on IPV-related PTSD symptoms in Battered Women Living in Domestic Violence Shelters, Sara Perez, Dawn M. Johnson and Caroline Vaile Wright, Sara Perez, Dawn M. Johnson and Caroline Vaile Wright,2012 P.103. [animate-link href="http://vaw.sagepub.com/content/18/1/102" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  54. Homicide in Canada, 2014, The Daily, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/151125/dq151125a-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  55. Violence Against Women in Canada Fact Sheet, Status of Women Canada (2013), p. 2.
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  56. Violence Against Women, 2013, Statistics Canada. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/130225/dq130225a-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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  58. Family Violence In Canada: A Statistical Profile, 2013, Section 3: Intimate partner violence. [animate-link href="http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2013001/article/11805/11805-3-eng.htm#a2" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  59. Violence Against Women with DisAbilities and Deaf Women: an overview (2103), By Odette, F. and Rajan, D., p. 3. [animate-link href="http://www.dawncanada.net/?attachment_id=867" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  60. Women with Disabilities and Violence Fact Sheet, DAWN Canada, undated. [animate-link href="http://www.dawncanada.net/?attachment_id=995" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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  62. Migrant Mothers Project, Policy Report, 2014, p. 34. [animate-link href="http://www.migrantmothersproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/MMP-Policy-Report-Final-Nov-14-2014.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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  64. All That Glitters is not Gold: The False Promise of Victim Impact Statements by Rakhi Ruparelia; Sexual Assault in Canada: Law, Legal Practice and Women’s Activism, p. 683. [animate-link href="http://www.ruor.uottawa.ca/bitstream/10393/19876/12/Sexual_Assault_in_Canada.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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  67. Behind Closed Doors: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children, Joint report by UNICEF, The Body Shop International, and the Secretariat for the United Nations Secretary-General’s Study on Violence Against Children, 2006, p. [animate-link href="http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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  69. PTSD Symptoms in Young Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence, By Alytia A. Levendosky , G. Anne Bogat and Cecilia Martinez-Torteya2, 2013, p 1-2. [animate-link href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/G_Anne_Bogat/publication/235659438_PTSD_Symptoms_in_Young_Children_Exposed_to_Intimate_Partner_Violence/links/55ba8a6b08ae092e965dac1f.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  70. The Effects of Family Violence on Children: Where Does it Hurt, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 2012. [animate-link href="http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/cp-pc/chi-enf-abu-eng.htm" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
  71. Child Abuse/Children Exposed to Violence Information Sheet, Human Services Alberta, October 2008. [animate-link href="http://www.humanservices.alberta.ca/documents/PFVB0399-children-exposed-to-family-violence.pdf" target="_blank"]Available here[/animate-link]
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